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patent beim Online naudingipatarimai.eu: ✓ Bedeutung, Begriffe in denen "patent" vorkommt Wir beantworten die Frage: Was bedeutet patent?. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'patent' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Der Begriff Patent bezeichnet ein gewerbliches Schutzrecht, das neben dem Gebrauchsmuster für den Schutz technischer Erfindungen gewährt wird. Patente . Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. Expatriates, the first armwrestling match between Bayern münchen werder bremen 2019 and Brussels]". The EPC provides gamestwist legal framework for the granting of European patents, [2] via a single, harmonised procedure before the European Patent Office. Giuseppe Conte to head populist coalition". A European patent confers rights on its proprietor, in each Contracting Wenn jemand eine reise tut in respect of which it is granted, from the date of publication of the mention of its grant in the European Patent Bulletin. These states then became "extension states" or "validation states", which means that European patents granted by the EPO may be extended to those countries through the payment of additional fees and completion of certain formalities. On 15 Januarythe House of Commons voted to against the deal, which was the largest majority against a United Kingdom government ever. Her minority government is supported in casino royale blu ray review votes was heißt patent the Democratic Unionist Party. London wants to keep EU citizens in Britain]. After the Act became law on 26 Junethe European Council decided on 29 June to renew its call on Member States and Fussball spile institutions to step up their work on preparedness at all levels and for all outcomes. This page was last edited on 1 Februaryat Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 3 June The negotiation period is limited to two years unless extended, after which the treaties cease to apply.

After the Act became law on 26 June , the European Council decided on 29 June to renew its call on Member States and Union institutions to step up their work on preparedness at all levels and for all outcomes.

The Withdrawal Act fixes the period ending 21 January for the government to decide on how to proceed if the negotiations have not reached agreement in principle on both the withdrawal arrangements and the framework for the future relationship between the UK and EU; while, alternatively, making future ratification of the withdrawal agreement as a treaty between the UK and EU depend upon the prior enactment of another act of Parliament for approving the final terms of withdrawal when the current Brexit negotiations are completed.

In any event, the act does not alter the two-year period for negotiating allowed by Article 50 that ends at the latest on 29 March if the UK has not by then ratified a withdrawal agreement.

The Withdrawal Act which became law in June allows for various outcomes including no negotiated settlement. A report published in March by the Institute for Government commented that, in addition to the European Union Withdrawal bill, primary and secondary legislation will be needed to cover the gaps in policy areas such as customs, immigration and agriculture.

In and , the House of Lords published a series of reports on Brexit-related subjects, including:. The shadow Brexit secretary, Keir Starmer , commented that the government did not want a vote at the beginning of the process, to trigger Article 50, nor a vote at the end.

Opinion polls in the fortnight following the referendum suggested that the immediate reaction in the Netherlands and other European countries was a decline in support for Eurosceptic movements.

A general election was held on 8 June , announced at short notice by the new Prime Minister Theresa May. The Conservative Party, Labour and UKIP made manifesto pledges to implement the referendum, although the Labour manifesto differed in its approach to Brexit negotiations, such as unilaterally offering permanent residence to EU immigrants.

Labour gained significantly on votes and seats, retaining its position as the second-largest party. On 26 June , Conservatives and the DUP reached a confidence and supply agreement whereby the DUP would back the Conservatives in key votes in the House of Commons over the course of the parliament.

Six weeks after the referendum, the Bank of England sought to cushion the potential shock to the economy by lowering interest rates to the record low of 0.

Since the referendum, absolute employment has continuously risen to previously unrecorded levels, and by early relative unemployment reached its lowest level 4.

During the UK continued to be the favourite European destination for foreign physical investment as distinct from company takeovers , creating 50, new jobs, ahead of Germany 31, jobs and France.

Factors mentioned were sterling devaluation since the referendum, broadband, and American investment. Official figures for June published in February showed that net EU immigration to the UK had slowed to about , immigrants per year, corresponding to the immigration level of Meanwhile, immigration from non-EU countries had increased.

Taken together, the two inflows into the UK result in an only slightly reduced net immigration of , newcomers in the year to June The Head of the Office of National Statistics suggested that Brexit could well be a factor for the slowdown in EU immigration, but cautioned there might be other reasons.

Following an unprecedented vote on 4 December , MPs ruled that the UK government was in contempt of parliament for refusing to provide to Parliament, the full legal advice it had been given on the effect of its proposed terms for withdrawal.

The following day, the advice was published. The question asked was, "What is the legal effect of the UK agreeing to the Protocol to the Withdrawal Agreement on Ireland and Northern Ireland in particular its effect in conjunction with Articles 5 and of the main Withdrawal Agreement?

Sir Ivan Rogers , the UK ambassador to the EU at the time of the referendum, publicly commented on 13 December that the EU was always adroit at reframing things that have already been agreed, such as the Irish backstop, in ways that "make the medicine slip down".

On 15 January , the House of Commons voted to against the deal, which was the largest majority against a United Kingdom government ever.

The Labour Party made a freedom of information request for details about the reports, but DExEU said that publishing the information would undermine policy formulation, and that it needed to carry out policymaking in a "safe space".

The leader of the house, Andrea Leadsom , said that there could be some delay while ministers decided how to release the information without prejudicing Brexit negotiations.

Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. However, almost any plausible outcome will result in an increase in regulatory burdens on business; a reduction in the flows of both unskilled and skilled workers; and an increase in illegal working.

The key question for policymakers will be how to minimise these negative impacts while at the same time addressing domestic political demands for increased control without antagonising our EU partners to the point of prejudicing other key aspects of the negotiations.

This will not be an easy task. The decline in EEA immigration is likely to have an adverse impact on the British health sector. Official figures in March indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration "net migration" had fallen to its lowest for three years.

Research on the effects that have already materialised in the United Kingdom since the referendum results show that the referendum result pushed up UK inflation by 1.

According to a Financial Times analysis, the Brexit referendum results had by December reduced national British income by between 0.

A analysis by economists at Stanford University and Nottingham University estimated that uncertainty around Brexit reduced investment by businesses by approximately 6 percentage points and an employment reduction by 1.

There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the European Union will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term.

Due to their longstanding trade integration with the UK, Irish regions have levels of Brexit exposure, which are similar to those of the UK regions with the lowest levels of exposure, namely London and northern parts of Scotland.

Meanwhile, the other most risk-exposed EU regions are all in southern Germany, with levels of risk which are typically half that of any UK or Irish region, and one third of that displayed by many UK regions.

There is also a very noticeable economic geography logic to the levels of exposure with north-western European regions typically being the most exposed to Brexit, while regions in southern and eastern Europe are barely affected at all by Brexit, at least in terms of the trade linkages Former Governor of the Bank of England Mervyn King commented that warnings of economic doom regarding leaving the EU were overstated and that the UK should leave the single market and probably the customs union in order to gain more opportunities, which would lead to improved British economic performance.

Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum proved to be too pessimistic.

He compared short-term economic forecasts to weather forecasts and the long-term economic forecasts to climate forecasts: If banks located in the UK cannot obtain passporting rights, they have strong incentives to relocate to financial centres within the EU.

Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority , currently based in London.

According to a study by University of Exeter and Chatham House researchers, there are considerable benefits for the UK to be integrated into the European energy market.

The study notes, "if the UK wants to enjoy the economic benefits of remaining part of what is an increasingly integrated European electricity market then, as European legislation is currently drafted, it will not only have to forgo an element of autonomy through accepting legislation and regulations made collectively at the EU level, but it will also lose much of its voice in that decision making process, effectively becoming a rule-taker rather than a rule-maker.

The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year, [] of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters. The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.

According to an analysis by researchers at Wageningen University and Research , Brexit would lead to higher prices in seafood for consumers because the UK imports most of its seafood.

British fishermen would be able to catch more fish, but the price for UK fish would decline. As a result, the analysis found that Brexit would result in a "lose-lose situation" for both the UK and the EU, and for both British consumers and the fishing industry.

Until now, neighbouring EU Member States have shared the bounty of the living resources of the seas around Britain. Brexit will have an effect on sports and culture.

After Brexit, any foreigner wanting to do so more than temporarily will need a work permit. At present, before Brexit, such work permits for non-EU team players can be tricky to get, especially for young or lower ranked players.

As suggested by the Scottish Government before the referendum, [] the First Minister of Scotland announced that officials were planning an independence referendum due to the result of Scotland voting to remain in the European Union when England and Wales voted to leave.

Sturgeon called for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU. After the referendum, First Minister Sturgeon suggested that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU, [] though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.

This Act allows for all devolved policy areas to remain within the remit of the Scottish Parliament and reduces the executive power upon exit day that the UK Withdrawal Bill provides for Ministers of the Crown.

Aviation may be heavily affected. The EU has rules allowing its airlines to fly anywhere in the union, also domestic, which will not apply to the UK anymore.

The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the right to fly over, take off and land there, for example the United States.

In the event of a no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may not be allowed into France. In the event of a "no deal" Brexit, the number of permits available to haulage drivers will be "severely limited": Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks.

The Financial Times said that there were approximately international agreements, spanning non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.

Concerns have been raised that Brexit might create security problems for the UK. British leaders have expressed support for retaining access to those information-sharing databases, but it could be complicated to obtain that access as a non-member of the EU.

Brexit would also complicate extradition requests. Under a hard Brexit scenario, the UK would lose access to basic law enforcement tools, such as databases comprising European plane travel records, vehicle registrations, fingerprints and DNA profiles.

A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market.

There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force.

There is concern about whether the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland becomes a "hard border" with customs and passport checks on the border, [] and whether this could affect the Good Friday Agreement that brought peace to Northern Ireland.

Although the UK government has signed off on proposals including the backstop, it regards the idea of having EU rules applying in Northern Ireland only as a threat to the integrity of the UK, and also does not want the UK as a whole to be subject to EU rules and the customs union indefinitely.

There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals within the Common Travel Area and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.

Since , the border has been essentially invisible. It is therefore possible that the border will return to being a "hard" one, with fewer, controlled, crossing posts and a customs infrastructure.

Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote.

Nevertheless, the territory remains within the European Union until Brexit is complete. In April , Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis announced that Spain hopes to sign off on a bilateral agreement with Britain over Gibraltar before October so as not to hinder a Brexit transition deal.

Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.

Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.

Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2.

In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.

The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.

Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: Analyses indicate that the departure of the relatively economically liberal UK will reduce the ability of remaining economically liberal countries to block measures in the Council of the European Union.

The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled without support from other countries, leading to speculation that it could enable the more protectionist EU countries to achieve specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.

In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.

Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.

Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice.

A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".

On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead.

She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.

The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".

That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.

An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".

Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.

Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.

The results of these polls are shown in the table below. Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.

It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.

This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.

These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.

In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.

Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.

In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.

So far, none of these parties have had any candidates elected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brexit disambiguation. This article documents an ongoing political event.

Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information.

Please feel free to improve this article or discuss changes on the talk page. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Members — elected by parliament Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Women.

Article 50 and negotiations. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history. Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Russian interference in the Brexit referendum. European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.

Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. Brexit in popular culture.

The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since Emerald Group Publishing, This will be midnight Central European Time.

Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March".

Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 16 January What are the biggest government defeats? The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November The Economics of International Disintegration".

Journal of Economic Perspectives. The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.

Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.

Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.

Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ". Oxford University Press, March Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 October Can Leavers and Remainers call a Christmas truce?

Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 31 August David Lidington warns EU that Chequers plan is only alternative to no-deal".

Retrieved 23 November House of Commons Library. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 18 March What are the options? Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 3 October Army of Remainers will go door-to-door in bid to overturn EU exit".

De Gaulle says "non" to Britain — again". Retrieved 9 March Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 February Britain joins the EEC".

Labour votes to leave the EEC". Retrieved 19 May A comprehensive district level analysis". Becker, Fetzer, Novy, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 22 November What did the "longest suicide note" say? Retrieved 21 October Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 15 September For it being but a delegated power from the People, they who have it cannot pass it to others.

Why the people should have a vote on Maastricht: The House of Lords must uphold democracy and insist on a referendum.

Futility of a House with no windows. Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 31 May Becker and Fetzer, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 25 October Prime minister, buoyed by successful negotiations on eurozone banking reform, rejects "in or out" referendum on EU".

Retrieved 2 July Cameron said he would continue to work for "a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU".

Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 29 February Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 8 June BBC forecasts UK votes to leave".

Retrieved 26 June Petition for second EU referendum rejected". Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 11 May Interim Report July UK Constitutional Law Association.

Retrieved 20 November Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 12 October The Constitution Unit Blog. Retrieved 14 May How plausible is second EU referendum?

The Government will implement what you decide. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 9 February MPs overwhelmingly back Article 50 bill".

Retrieved 1 February May signs letter that will trigger Brexit". Retrieved 28 March Brexit" Tweet — via Twitter. Retrieved 29 March Triggering Article 50 TEU: Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 23 June UK caves in to EU demand to agree divorce bill before trade talks".

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 1 July With Merkel there will be no cherrypicking for the British]. Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March".

During the prosecution phase, a European patent is a single regional proceeding, and "the grant of a European patent may be requested for one or more of the Contracting States.

There are only two types of centrally executed procedures after grant, the opposition procedure and the limitation and revocation procedures.

The opposition procedure, governed by the EPC, allows third parties to file an opposition against a European patent within 9 months of the date of grant of that patent.

Simultaneously to the opposition, a European patent may be the subject of litigation at a national level for example an infringement dispute.

National courts may suspend such infringement proceedings pending outcome of the opposition proceedings to avoid proceedings running in parallel and the uncertainties that may arise from that.

In contrast to the unified, regional character of a European patent application, the granted European patent does not comprise, in effect, any such unitary character, except for the opposition procedure.

A European patent confers rights on its proprietor, in each Contracting State in respect of which it is granted, from the date of publication of the mention of its grant in the European Patent Bulletin.

Namely, in the Contracting States which have "prescribe[d] that if the text, in which the European Patent Office intends to grant a European patent In those Contracting States where the London Agreement is in force the requirement to file a translation of the European patent has been entirely or partially waived.

Almost all attributes of a European patent in a Contracting State, i. Though the EPC imposes some common limits, the EPC expressly adopts national law for interpretation of all substantive attributes of a European patent in a Contracting State, with a few exceptions.

EPO Boards of Appeal decisions are not precedential at all upon national courts, which have exclusive jurisdiction on validity and infringement after a European patent has been granted except during the 9-month opposition period, which can only relate to validity.

Infringement is remitted almost entirely to national law and to national courts. All other substantive rights attached to a European patent in a Contracting State, such as what acts constitute infringement indirect and divided infringement, infringement by equivalents, extraterritorial infringement, infringement outside the term of the patent with economic effect during the term of the patent, infringement of product claims by processes for making or using, exports, assembly of parts into an infringing whole, etc.

For a period in the lates, national courts issued cross-border injunctions covering all EP jurisdictions, but this has been limited by the European Court of Justice.

In two cases in July interpreting Articles 6. Validity is also remitted largely to national law and national courts. Article 1 EPC limits the application of national law to only the following grounds of invalidity, and specifies that the standards for each ground are those of national law:.

A national court may partially invalidate a European patent in a Contracting State, e. A European patent is also non-unitary in that it may be revoked in one Contracting State while maintained in another.

However, a national court in one Contracting State may not revoke a European patent in another Contracting State. The EPC requires all jurisdictions to give a European patent a term of 20 years from the filing date, [72] the filing date being the actual date of filing an application for a European patent or the date of filing of an international application under the PCT designating the EPO.

The filing date is not necessarily the priority date , which can be up to one year earlier. The term of a granted European patent may be extended under national law if national law provides term extension to compensate for pre-marketing regulatory approval.

Lithuania closed its "national route" most recently, on 4 September From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

European Patent Convention Convention on the Grant of European Patents European Patent Convention Contracting States in dark green, extension agreement states in light green and validation agreement states in violet.

Grant procedure before the European Patent Office. Opposition procedure before the European Patent Office. Enforcement of European patents.

The Convention does not apply to Aruba. Furthermore, European patents in force in the UK can also be registered in some overseas states or territories under some circumstances as explained in "Registration of European patents UK in overseas states or territories", OJ EPO , Some however consider this view as incorrect: As Tom Scourfield wrote in an article commenting on these two decisions: Until a true community patent becomes a reality it seems likely that true community enforcement will continue to elude patent owners.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 30 June Work on a European patent law aimed at a "European patent" had begun in Strasbourg in with the Longchambon plan.

Consulted on 8 May Consulted on 2 May Consulted on 31 July Consulted on 15 January Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 10 February Extension to states not party to the EPC.

It is therefore subject to the national extension rules of the country concerned. Retrieved 6 March The state of the art is further defined in Articles 54 2 - 5 , and a limited grace period is specified in Article 55 EPC, but this is only relevant in cases of breach of confidence or disclosure of the invention in a recognised international exhibition.

The article uses the expression "a European patent in a Contracting State" which is considered to be the most consistent with the authoritative text, i.

Both parties to the withdrawal negotiation are bound by Article 50 3 , which states explicitly that the EU treaties will cease to apply "from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after" the withdrawal notification unless the EU Council and UK agree to extend the two-year period.

On the British side, the European Union Withdrawal Act , section 20 1 defines "exit day" as "29 March at The British and EU negotiators agreed that initial negotiations, relating especially to residency rights, would commence in June immediately after the French presidential and parliamentary elections , and full negotiations, relating especially to trading agreements, could commence in October immediately after the German federal election, In November , May proposed that Britain and the other EU countries mutually guarantee the residency rights of the 3.

In January , the Prime Minister presented 12 negotiating objectives and confirmed that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership.

The statutory period for negotiation began on 29 March , when the UK formally submitted a letter notifying withdrawal.

Instead, the UK would seek a free trade agreement with the EU. On 29 April , immediately after the first round of French presidential elections, the EU27 heads of state accepted negotiating guidelines prepared by Tusk.

On 22 May , the European Council authorised its negotiators to start the Brexit talks and it adopted its negotiating directives. On 22 June , Prime Minister May guaranteed that no EU citizen living legally in the UK would be forced to leave, and offered that any EU citizen who lived in the UK for more than five years until an unspecified deadline between March and March would enjoy the same rights as a UK citizen, conditional on the EU providing the same offer to British expatriates living in the EU.

The second round of negotiations began in mid-July On 16 August , the UK government disclosed the first of several papers detailing British ambitions following Brexit, discussing trade and customs arrangements.

The third round of negotiations began on 28 August There was disagreement over the financial settlement; The Irish Times explained that British negotiators referred to the seven-year Multiannual Financial Framework MFF or Maff for the period — agreed by member states and the EU parliament as a "planning tool" for the next period rather than a legally-binding financial obligation on member states.

The British case is that the MFF sets ceilings on spending under various headings and is later radically revised during the annual budget process when real legal obligations on each state arises.

On 5 September , Davis said that "concrete progress" had been made over the summer in areas such as protecting the rights of British expats in the EU to access healthcare and over the future of the Irish border, while significant differences over the "divorce bill" remained.

The paper envisages that a "unique" solution would be permissible here; in other words, any such exceptional Irish solution would not necessarily be a template for post-Brexit relationships with the other EU members.

On 22 September , May announced further details of her Brexit proposal. The fourth round of talks began on 25 September, with Barnier declaring he had no mandate from the EU27 to discuss a transition deal suggested by Prime Minister May.

Davis reiterated that the UK could honour commitments made during its EU membership only in the context of a future "special partnership" deal with the EU.

EU negotiators have stated that an agreement must be reached between Britain and the EU by October in order to leave time for national parliaments to endorse Brexit.

On 9 October , May announced to the British Parliament that Britain could operate as an "independent trading nation" after Brexit if no trade deal is reached with the EU.

In December , EU leaders announced an agreement to begin the next phase of negotiations, with talks on a transition period after March to begin in early and discussions on the future UK-EU relationship, including trade and security, to begin in March.

After elections in March , the Italian president appointed a eurosceptic Italian government on 1 June , [] a development expected to affect the Brexit outcome.

Michel Barnier praised the "dedication and commitment" of the negotiating teams, and said progress had been made in issues like customs, VAT and the European nuclear agreement, Euratom.

It is by media called the Chequers plan. On 12 September , the bill passed its first vote and second reading by a margin of votes to votes in the House of Commons.

After the Act became law on 26 June , the European Council decided on 29 June to renew its call on Member States and Union institutions to step up their work on preparedness at all levels and for all outcomes.

The Withdrawal Act fixes the period ending 21 January for the government to decide on how to proceed if the negotiations have not reached agreement in principle on both the withdrawal arrangements and the framework for the future relationship between the UK and EU; while, alternatively, making future ratification of the withdrawal agreement as a treaty between the UK and EU depend upon the prior enactment of another act of Parliament for approving the final terms of withdrawal when the current Brexit negotiations are completed.

In any event, the act does not alter the two-year period for negotiating allowed by Article 50 that ends at the latest on 29 March if the UK has not by then ratified a withdrawal agreement.

The Withdrawal Act which became law in June allows for various outcomes including no negotiated settlement. A report published in March by the Institute for Government commented that, in addition to the European Union Withdrawal bill, primary and secondary legislation will be needed to cover the gaps in policy areas such as customs, immigration and agriculture.

In and , the House of Lords published a series of reports on Brexit-related subjects, including:. The shadow Brexit secretary, Keir Starmer , commented that the government did not want a vote at the beginning of the process, to trigger Article 50, nor a vote at the end.

Opinion polls in the fortnight following the referendum suggested that the immediate reaction in the Netherlands and other European countries was a decline in support for Eurosceptic movements.

A general election was held on 8 June , announced at short notice by the new Prime Minister Theresa May. The Conservative Party, Labour and UKIP made manifesto pledges to implement the referendum, although the Labour manifesto differed in its approach to Brexit negotiations, such as unilaterally offering permanent residence to EU immigrants.

Labour gained significantly on votes and seats, retaining its position as the second-largest party. On 26 June , Conservatives and the DUP reached a confidence and supply agreement whereby the DUP would back the Conservatives in key votes in the House of Commons over the course of the parliament.

Six weeks after the referendum, the Bank of England sought to cushion the potential shock to the economy by lowering interest rates to the record low of 0.

Since the referendum, absolute employment has continuously risen to previously unrecorded levels, and by early relative unemployment reached its lowest level 4.

During the UK continued to be the favourite European destination for foreign physical investment as distinct from company takeovers , creating 50, new jobs, ahead of Germany 31, jobs and France.

Factors mentioned were sterling devaluation since the referendum, broadband, and American investment. Official figures for June published in February showed that net EU immigration to the UK had slowed to about , immigrants per year, corresponding to the immigration level of Meanwhile, immigration from non-EU countries had increased.

Taken together, the two inflows into the UK result in an only slightly reduced net immigration of , newcomers in the year to June The Head of the Office of National Statistics suggested that Brexit could well be a factor for the slowdown in EU immigration, but cautioned there might be other reasons.

Following an unprecedented vote on 4 December , MPs ruled that the UK government was in contempt of parliament for refusing to provide to Parliament, the full legal advice it had been given on the effect of its proposed terms for withdrawal.

The following day, the advice was published. The question asked was, "What is the legal effect of the UK agreeing to the Protocol to the Withdrawal Agreement on Ireland and Northern Ireland in particular its effect in conjunction with Articles 5 and of the main Withdrawal Agreement?

Sir Ivan Rogers , the UK ambassador to the EU at the time of the referendum, publicly commented on 13 December that the EU was always adroit at reframing things that have already been agreed, such as the Irish backstop, in ways that "make the medicine slip down".

On 15 January , the House of Commons voted to against the deal, which was the largest majority against a United Kingdom government ever.

The Labour Party made a freedom of information request for details about the reports, but DExEU said that publishing the information would undermine policy formulation, and that it needed to carry out policymaking in a "safe space".

The leader of the house, Andrea Leadsom , said that there could be some delay while ministers decided how to release the information without prejudicing Brexit negotiations.

Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. However, almost any plausible outcome will result in an increase in regulatory burdens on business; a reduction in the flows of both unskilled and skilled workers; and an increase in illegal working.

The key question for policymakers will be how to minimise these negative impacts while at the same time addressing domestic political demands for increased control without antagonising our EU partners to the point of prejudicing other key aspects of the negotiations.

This will not be an easy task. The decline in EEA immigration is likely to have an adverse impact on the British health sector. Official figures in March indicated that EU immigration to the UK continued to exceed emigration, but the difference between immigration and emigration "net migration" had fallen to its lowest for three years.

Research on the effects that have already materialised in the United Kingdom since the referendum results show that the referendum result pushed up UK inflation by 1.

According to a Financial Times analysis, the Brexit referendum results had by December reduced national British income by between 0.

A analysis by economists at Stanford University and Nottingham University estimated that uncertainty around Brexit reduced investment by businesses by approximately 6 percentage points and an employment reduction by 1.

There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the European Union will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term.

Due to their longstanding trade integration with the UK, Irish regions have levels of Brexit exposure, which are similar to those of the UK regions with the lowest levels of exposure, namely London and northern parts of Scotland.

Meanwhile, the other most risk-exposed EU regions are all in southern Germany, with levels of risk which are typically half that of any UK or Irish region, and one third of that displayed by many UK regions.

There is also a very noticeable economic geography logic to the levels of exposure with north-western European regions typically being the most exposed to Brexit, while regions in southern and eastern Europe are barely affected at all by Brexit, at least in terms of the trade linkages Former Governor of the Bank of England Mervyn King commented that warnings of economic doom regarding leaving the EU were overstated and that the UK should leave the single market and probably the customs union in order to gain more opportunities, which would lead to improved British economic performance.

Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum proved to be too pessimistic.

He compared short-term economic forecasts to weather forecasts and the long-term economic forecasts to climate forecasts: If banks located in the UK cannot obtain passporting rights, they have strong incentives to relocate to financial centres within the EU.

Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority , currently based in London. According to a study by University of Exeter and Chatham House researchers, there are considerable benefits for the UK to be integrated into the European energy market.

The study notes, "if the UK wants to enjoy the economic benefits of remaining part of what is an increasingly integrated European electricity market then, as European legislation is currently drafted, it will not only have to forgo an element of autonomy through accepting legislation and regulations made collectively at the EU level, but it will also lose much of its voice in that decision making process, effectively becoming a rule-taker rather than a rule-maker.

The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year, [] of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters.

The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.

According to an analysis by researchers at Wageningen University and Research , Brexit would lead to higher prices in seafood for consumers because the UK imports most of its seafood.

British fishermen would be able to catch more fish, but the price for UK fish would decline. As a result, the analysis found that Brexit would result in a "lose-lose situation" for both the UK and the EU, and for both British consumers and the fishing industry.

Until now, neighbouring EU Member States have shared the bounty of the living resources of the seas around Britain. Brexit will have an effect on sports and culture.

After Brexit, any foreigner wanting to do so more than temporarily will need a work permit. At present, before Brexit, such work permits for non-EU team players can be tricky to get, especially for young or lower ranked players.

As suggested by the Scottish Government before the referendum, [] the First Minister of Scotland announced that officials were planning an independence referendum due to the result of Scotland voting to remain in the European Union when England and Wales voted to leave.

Sturgeon called for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU. After the referendum, First Minister Sturgeon suggested that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU, [] though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.

This Act allows for all devolved policy areas to remain within the remit of the Scottish Parliament and reduces the executive power upon exit day that the UK Withdrawal Bill provides for Ministers of the Crown.

Aviation may be heavily affected. The EU has rules allowing its airlines to fly anywhere in the union, also domestic, which will not apply to the UK anymore.

The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the right to fly over, take off and land there, for example the United States. In the event of a no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may not be allowed into France.

In the event of a "no deal" Brexit, the number of permits available to haulage drivers will be "severely limited": Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks.

The Financial Times said that there were approximately international agreements, spanning non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.

Concerns have been raised that Brexit might create security problems for the UK. British leaders have expressed support for retaining access to those information-sharing databases, but it could be complicated to obtain that access as a non-member of the EU.

Brexit would also complicate extradition requests. Under a hard Brexit scenario, the UK would lose access to basic law enforcement tools, such as databases comprising European plane travel records, vehicle registrations, fingerprints and DNA profiles.

A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market.

There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force.

There is concern about whether the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland becomes a "hard border" with customs and passport checks on the border, [] and whether this could affect the Good Friday Agreement that brought peace to Northern Ireland.

Although the UK government has signed off on proposals including the backstop, it regards the idea of having EU rules applying in Northern Ireland only as a threat to the integrity of the UK, and also does not want the UK as a whole to be subject to EU rules and the customs union indefinitely.

There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals within the Common Travel Area and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.

Since , the border has been essentially invisible. It is therefore possible that the border will return to being a "hard" one, with fewer, controlled, crossing posts and a customs infrastructure.

Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote.

Nevertheless, the territory remains within the European Union until Brexit is complete. In April , Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis announced that Spain hopes to sign off on a bilateral agreement with Britain over Gibraltar before October so as not to hinder a Brexit transition deal.

Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.

Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.

Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2. In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.

The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty. Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: Analyses indicate that the departure of the relatively economically liberal UK will reduce the ability of remaining economically liberal countries to block measures in the Council of the European Union.

The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled without support from other countries, leading to speculation that it could enable the more protectionist EU countries to achieve specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.

In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.

Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.

Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice.

A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".

On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead. She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.

The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".

That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.

An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".

Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.

Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.

The results of these polls are shown in the table below. Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.

It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.

This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.

These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.

In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.

Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.

In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.

So far, none of these parties have had any candidates elected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brexit disambiguation.

This article documents an ongoing political event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable.

The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. Please feel free to improve this article or discuss changes on the talk page.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Members — elected by parliament Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Women.

Article 50 and negotiations. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history. Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Russian interference in the Brexit referendum. European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.

Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union.

Brexit in popular culture. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since Emerald Group Publishing, This will be midnight Central European Time.

Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 16 January What are the biggest government defeats?

The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November The Economics of International Disintegration". Journal of Economic Perspectives.

The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.

Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.

Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.

Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ".

Oxford University Press, March Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 October Can Leavers and Remainers call a Christmas truce?

Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 31 August David Lidington warns EU that Chequers plan is only alternative to no-deal".

Retrieved 23 November House of Commons Library. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 18 March What are the options? Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 3 October Army of Remainers will go door-to-door in bid to overturn EU exit".

De Gaulle says "non" to Britain — again". Retrieved 9 March Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 February Britain joins the EEC".

Labour votes to leave the EEC". Retrieved 19 May A comprehensive district level analysis". Becker, Fetzer, Novy, University of Warwick. Retrieved 22 November What did the "longest suicide note" say?

Retrieved 21 October Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 15 September For it being but a delegated power from the People, they who have it cannot pass it to others.

Why the people should have a vote on Maastricht: The House of Lords must uphold democracy and insist on a referendum. Futility of a House with no windows.

Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 31 May Becker and Fetzer, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 25 October Prime minister, buoyed by successful negotiations on eurozone banking reform, rejects "in or out" referendum on EU".

Retrieved 2 July Cameron said he would continue to work for "a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU".

Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 29 February Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 8 June BBC forecasts UK votes to leave".

Retrieved 26 June Petition for second EU referendum rejected". Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 5 July A single patent application , in one language, [3] may be filed at the European Patent Office in Munich , [4] at its branch in The Hague , [4] [notes 1] at its sub-office in Berlin , [6] or at a national patent office of a Contracting State, if the national law of the State so permits.

Before , two important problems when seeking to obtain patent protection in Europe in a number of countries were first the need to file a separate patent application in each country, with a subsequent distinct grant procedure in each country, and secondly the need to translate the text of the application into a number of different languages.

Different languages are indeed utilised across the European countries and there is substantial expense in preparing translations into each of those languages.

While the European Patent Convention does not totally overcome the need for translations since a translation may be required after grant to validate a patent in a given EPC Contracting State , it does centralise the prosecution in one language and defers the cost of translations until the time of grant.

His proposal, known as the "Longchambon plan", marked the beginning of the work on a European patent law aimed at a "European patent". The meetings of the Committee nevertheless led to two Conventions, one on the formalities required for patent applications and one on the international classification of patent In , the Munich Diplomatic Conference for the setting up of a European System for the Grant of Patents took place and the Convention was then signed in Munich the Convention is sometimes known as the "Munich Convention".

The Convention entered into force on 7 October for the following first countries: However, the first patent applications were filed on 1 June date fixed by the Administrative Council which held its first meeting on 19 October Subsequently, other countries have joined the EPC.

The Convention is, as of January , in force in 38 countries. A diplomatic conference was held in November in Munich to revise the Convention, amongst other things to integrate in the EPC new developments in international law and to add a level of judicial review of the Boards of Appeal decisions.

The revised text, informally called the EPC , entered into force on 13 December Throughout the history of the EPC, some non-contracting States have concluded cooperation agreements with the European Patent Organisation, known as extension or validation agreements.

These states then became "extension states" or "validation states", which means that European patents granted by the EPO may be extended to those countries through the payment of additional fees and completion of certain formalities.

Such cooperation agreements are concluded by the President of the European Patent Office on behalf of the European Patent Organisation pursuant to Article 33 4 EPC, are not based on a "direct application of the EPC but solely on national law modelled on the EPC", [21] and exist to assist with the establishment of national property rights in these states.

However, the extension of a European patent or patent application to these states is "not subject to the jurisdiction of the [EPO] boards of appeal.

As of January , Bosnia and Herzegovina , and Montenegro [13] have extension agreements with the EPO so that, in effect, these states can be designated in a European patent application.

Several other "extension states" have since become states parties to the EPC. Furthermore, so-called "validation agreements" with Morocco, Moldova, Tunisia, and Cambodia are also in effect since 1 March , 1 November , 1 December , and 1 March , respectively.

The European Patent Convention is "a special agreement within the meaning of Article 19 of the Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property , signed in Paris on 20 March and last revised on 14 July , and a regional patent treaty within the meaning of Article 45, paragraph 1, of the Patent Cooperation Treaty of 19 June The content of the Convention includes several texts in addition to the main articles.

European patents shall be granted for any inventions, in all fields of technology, providing that they are new , involve an inventive step , and are susceptible of industrial application.

This article constitutes the "fundamental provision of the EPC which governs the patentability of inventions". However, the EPC provides further indications on what is patentable.

First, discoveries , scientific theories , mathematical methods, [33] aesthetic creations, [34] schemes, rules and methods for performing mental acts, playing games or doing business, programs for computers [35] and presentations of information [36] are not regarded as inventions [37] and are excluded from patentability only to the extent that the invention relates to those areas as such.

Software patents under the EPC. The Convention also includes provisions setting out filing requirements of European applications, the procedure up to grant, the opposition procedure and other aspects relating to the prosecution of patent applications under the Convention.

European patent applications may be filed in any language, but they are prosecuted only in one of the three official languages of the EPO — English, French and German.

If an application is filed in a language other than an official language, a translation must be filed into one of the three official languages, [43] within two months from the date of filing.

European patent applications are prosecuted in a similar fashion to most patent systems — the invention is searched and published, and subsequently examined for compliance with the requirements of the EPC.

During the prosecution phase, a European patent is a single regional proceeding, and "the grant of a European patent may be requested for one or more of the Contracting States.

There are only two types of centrally executed procedures after grant, the opposition procedure and the limitation and revocation procedures.

The opposition procedure, governed by the EPC, allows third parties to file an opposition against a European patent within 9 months of the date of grant of that patent.

Simultaneously to the opposition, a European patent may be the subject of litigation at a national level for example an infringement dispute. National courts may suspend such infringement proceedings pending outcome of the opposition proceedings to avoid proceedings running in parallel and the uncertainties that may arise from that.

In contrast to the unified, regional character of a European patent application, the granted European patent does not comprise, in effect, any such unitary character, except for the opposition procedure.

A European patent confers rights on its proprietor, in each Contracting State in respect of which it is granted, from the date of publication of the mention of its grant in the European Patent Bulletin.

Namely, in the Contracting States which have "prescribe[d] that if the text, in which the European Patent Office intends to grant a European patent In those Contracting States where the London Agreement is in force the requirement to file a translation of the European patent has been entirely or partially waived.

Almost all attributes of a European patent in a Contracting State, i. Though the EPC imposes some common limits, the EPC expressly adopts national law for interpretation of all substantive attributes of a European patent in a Contracting State, with a few exceptions.

EPO Boards of Appeal decisions are not precedential at all upon national courts, which have exclusive jurisdiction on validity and infringement after a European patent has been granted except during the 9-month opposition period, which can only relate to validity.

Infringement is remitted almost entirely to national law and to national courts. All other substantive rights attached to a European patent in a Contracting State, such as what acts constitute infringement indirect and divided infringement, infringement by equivalents, extraterritorial infringement, infringement outside the term of the patent with economic effect during the term of the patent, infringement of product claims by processes for making or using, exports, assembly of parts into an infringing whole, etc.

For a period in the lates, national courts issued cross-border injunctions covering all EP jurisdictions, but this has been limited by the European Court of Justice.

In two cases in July interpreting Articles 6. Validity is also remitted largely to national law and national courts.

Article 1 EPC limits the application of national law to only the following grounds of invalidity, and specifies that the standards for each ground are those of national law:.

A national court may partially invalidate a European patent in a Contracting State, e. A European patent is also non-unitary in that it may be revoked in one Contracting State while maintained in another.

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